Female populist leaders sometimes reference their gender as setting them apart from the dominant "old boys' club",[167] while in Latin America a number of populists, such as Evo Morales and Alberto Fujimori, emphasised their non-white ethnic background to set them apart from the white-dominated elite.

[190] This is especially the case in two-round systems, because outsiders who might not win most votes in the first round of voting might be able to so when faced against a mainstream candidate in the second round. [204], Populism is a flexible term as it can be seen to exist in both democracies as well as authoritarian regimes.

[160], Populist leaders are sometimes also characterised as strongmen or—in Latin American countries—as caudillos.

Conniff, Michael L. "A historiography of populism and neopopulism in Latin America", Knight, Alan. "[181], The media has also been argued to have helped populists in countries of other regions by giving exposure to the most controversial politicians for commercial reasons. If that is the case, then yes, I am a populist. Athens and Populares, a political faction active in the Roman Republic from the second century BCE. [222] In several instances—such as Orban in Hungary—the populist leader has set the country on a path of de-democratisation by changing the constitution to centralise increasing levels of power in the head of government.

", Leaman, David.

Norris suggests that events such as globalisation, China's membership of the World Trade Organisation and cheaper imports have left the unsecured members of society (low-waged unskilled workers, single parents, the long term unemployed and the poorer white populations) seeking stronger authoritarian populist leaders such as Donald Trump and Nigel Farage. [350] Such factors undermine citizens' belief in the competency of governing elite, opening up space for charismatic leadership to become increasingly popular; although charismatic leadership is not the same as populist leadership, populists have been the main winners of this shift towards charismatic leadership. [28] She noted that these were "analytical constructs" and that "real-life examples may well overlap several categories",[29] adding that no single political movement fitted into all seven categories. "[33] Similarly, Canovan noted that the term "does have comparatively clear and definite meanings in a number of specialist areas" and that it "provides a pointer, however shaky, to an interesting and largely unexplored area of political and social experience".

[85], When populists take governmental power, they are faced with a challenge in that they now represent a new elite. [42] In this definition, the term populism is applied to political groups and individuals who make appeals to "the people" and then contrast this group against "the elite". Guy and Jon Pierre. [148] For instance, the Great Recession of 2007 and its impact on the economies of southern Europe was a catalyst for the rise of Syriza in Greece and Podemos in Spain, while the Mani pulite corruption scandal of the early 1990s played a significant part in the rise of the Italian populist Silvio Berlusconi. [180] The former Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez had a weekly show called Aló Presidente, which according to historian Enrique Krauze gave some Venezuelans "at least the appearance of contact with power, through his verbal and visual presence, which may be welcomed by people who have spent most of their lives being ignored.


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