Contemporary fountain pen inks are almost exclusively dye-based because pigment particles usually clog the narrow passages. On May 25, 1827, Romanian inventor Petrache Poenaru received patent from the French government for a fountain pen which had a barrel made from a large swan quill. 1649–1685. [28] At the same time, manufacturers experimented with new filling systems. [90] Many agree that the "personal touch" of a fountain pen has led to such a resurgence with modern consumers looking for an alternative in a world of digital products and services. ", "Seal the Deal: The Mightest Fountain Pens", "Find out why a fountain pen 'personalizes' your prose", "School brings back pens so pupils get write stuff", "Goulet Pens Blog: The 7 Biggest Fountain Pen Mistakes", "Write way to earn a profit: Fountain pens are gaining popularity as", "Fountain pen sales are surging, despite flat luxury global sales", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Fountain_pen&oldid=987328630, Articles with dead external links from January 2017, Articles with permanently dead external links, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles lacking reliable references from May 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 6 November 2020, at 09:15.

[11] Many new manufacturing techniques were perfected, enabling the city's factories to mass-produce their pens cheaply and efficiently. The nib is kept in the ink for approximately 10 seconds to allow the reservoir to fill. In 2010 Poșta Română issued a 5 lei stamp depicting Poenaru next to his fountain pen project. In 1824, the Wallachian ruler Grigore Ghica granted him another scholarship, which compelled Poenaru to return to the country after the studies ended and share his acquired knowledge as a teacher. A patent for an ink cartridge system for fountain pens was filed in 1890. Patent #239063A

Waterman died in 1901 and his nephew, Frank D. Waterman, took the business overseas, increasing sales to 350,000 pens a year. Several patents were issued over the years for self-filling fountain pen designs: Early inks caused steel nibs to quickly corrode and gold nibs held up to the corrosion. His goal was to make a "more durable, inexpensive and better pen to carry in the pocket." [9], In 1828, Josiah Mason improved a cheap and efficient slip-in nib in Birmingham, England, which could be added to a fountain pen and in 1830, with the invention of a new machine, William Joseph Gillott, William Mitchell, and James Stephen Perry devised a way to mass manufacture robust, cheap steel pen nibs (Perry & Co.). The ink is taken up and into the feed by way of capillary action (and is often visible in clear demonstrator pens), but is not dispensed onto the paper until the nib makes contact. In 1890, W. B. Purvis patented a self-filler. Each nib wore down, accommodating each owner's writing style. Fountain pen inks feature differing surface tensions that can cause an ink to adhere or "stick" against the inside of the reservoir.

Plastic cartridges came into use in the 1960s, but bottled inks are still the mainstay for most fountain pen enthusiasts.

Bottled inks usually cost less than an equivalent amount in cartridges and afford a wider variety of colors and properties. Vacuum fillers, such as those used by Pilot in the Custom 823, utilize air pressure to fill the ink chamber. Many users also favor the air of timeless elegance, personalization, and sentimentality associated with fountain pens,[83] which computers and ballpoint pens seem to lack,[84] and often state that once they start using fountain pens, ballpoints become awkward to use due to the extra motor effort needed and lack of expressiveness. [56] A different user is likely to find that a worn-in nib does not write satisfactorily in their hand and, furthermore, creates a second wear surface, ruining the nib for the original user. A pen with a misconfigured feed might fail to deposit any ink whatsoever.[45]. Furthermore, most inks were highly corrosive and full of sedimentary inclusions. In countries where this rivalry was not present to the same degree, such as the UK and Germany, flexible nibs are more common.[56]. This mechanism is very closely modeled after a similar pneumatic filler introduced by Chilton over a decade earlier. They filed for an Argentinian patent in 1943 and named their pen the Birome, a blending of the sounds of their names Biro and Meyne. The feed allows ink to flow when the pen is being put to paper but ensures ink does not flow when the pen is not in use. Fountain pens from Aurora, Hero, Duke, and Uranus accept the same cartridges and converters that Parker uses and vice versa (Lamy cartridges, though not officially, are known to interchange with Parker cartridges also). [16], After the eyedropper-filler era came the first generation of mass-produced self-fillers, almost all using a rubber sac to hold the ink. In addition, cheaper ink tends to take longer to dry on paper, may skip or produce uneven colour on the page and less "tolerant" on lower, thinner grades of paper (e.g. [13] From the 1850s, there was a steadily accelerating stream of fountain pen patents and pens in production. [47] Titanium is a less common metal used for making nibs. Filling the reservoir with ink may be achieved manually, via the use of an eyedropper or syringe, or via an internal filling mechanism which creates suction (for example, through a piston mechanism) or a vacuum to transfer ink directly through the nib into the reservoir. [41], The whole nib narrows to a point where the ink is transferred to the paper. To fill the pen, one simply turns the ring around the barrel until the crescent matches up to the hole in the ring, allowing one to push down the crescent and squeeze the internal sac. [86], Some fountain pens are treated as collectibles. [20] Some of the earliest solutions to this problem came in the form of a "safety" pen with a retractable point that allowed the ink reservoir to be corked like a bottle.

The most successful of these came from Francis C. Brown of the Caw's Pen and Ink Co. and from Morris W. Moore of Boston. Writing instruments designed to carry their own supply of ink had existed in principle for over 100 years before Waterman put his mind to improving the concept. Fountain pens can serve various artistic purposes such as expressive penmanship and calligraphy, pen and ink artwork, and professional art and design. She is known for her independent films and documentaries, including one about Alexander Graham Bell. – Q&A Slices", "Which Ink Cartridges Can Be Used With Which Fountain Pens? Poenaru, who had studied in Paris and Vienna and, later, completed his specialized studies in England, was a mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, teacher and organizer of the educational system, as well as a politician, agronomist, and zootechnologist, founder of the Philharmonic Society, the Botanical Gardens and the National Museum of Antiquities in Bucharest. The earliest datable pen of the form described by Bion is inscribed 1702, while other examples bear French hallmarks as late as the early 19th century.

Such pens can only take a proprietary cartridge from the same manufacturer, in this case the long Waterman cartridges. People did not loan their fountain pens to anyone for this reason. Waterman was an insurance broker in New York City in 1883, getting ready to sign one of his hottest contracts. [citation needed].

No method of flushing the device was offered, and because of problems from clogging with dried and hardened ink, production was eventually stopped.

[67], A capillary filling system was introduced by Parker in the Parker 61 in 1956. It was an immediate success, but the introduction of ballpoints overshadowed the invention of the cartridge and dried up business for the fountain pen industry. After news of Vladimirescu’s death spread, he took refuge in Sibiu. Further gold plating provides favorable wettability, which is the ability of a solid surface to reduce the surface tension of a liquid in contact with it such that it spreads over the surface. The different ways that reservoirs filled proved to be one of the most competitive areas in the fountain pen industry. [8] The Romanian inventor Petrache Poenaru received a French patent on May 25, 1827, for the invention of a fountain pen with a barrel made from a large swan quill. )[33] It is not possible to use a converter in them at all. [21], In 1898, George Safford Parker released the Parker Jointless, named so because its barrel was single-piece to prevent leakage. This, however, is not a point of concern in pens with modern, durable tipping material, as these pens take many years to develop any significant wear. The inter-war period saw the introduction of some of the most notable models, such as the Parker Duofold[29] and Vacumatic,[30] Sheaffer's Lifetime Balance series,[31] and the Pelikan 100. Lewis Waterman – Inventor of Fountain Pen Lewis Edson Waterman (1837 - 1901) was the inventor of the capillary feed fountain pen and the founder of Ideal Pen Company and Waterman Pen Company. Iridium used on the very tip of the nib eventually replaced gold because gold was too soft. This period saw the launch of innovative models such as the Parker 51, the Aurora 88, the Sheaffer Snorkel, and the Eversharp Skyline and (later) Skyliner, while the Esterbrook J series of lever-fill models with interchangeable steel nibs offered inexpensive reliability to the masses.

[2], There is compelling evidence that a working fountain pen was constructed and used during the Renaissance by artist and inventor Leonardo da Vinci. [47], The nib usually has a tapering or parallel slit cut down its centre, to convey the ink down the nib by capillary action, as well as a "breather hole" of varying shape. Thousands of skilled craftsmen were employed in the industry. Fourth, the length of the tines determines how far they can spread under pressure, shorter tines make a stiffer nib. extra fine and fine) may be used for intricate corrections and alterations, at the expense of shading and sheen. When a fountain pen nib receives such an overflow it will result in ink blobbing or dripping also known as burping. For ergonomics, fountain pens may relieve physiological stress from writing; alternatives such as the ballpoint pen can induce more pain and damage to those with arthritis. The most common type of converters are piston-style, but many other varieties may be found today.

[51], Broader nibs are used for less precise emphasis, with the benefit of a greater level of ink shading, a property wherein ink pools in parts of a stroke to cause variations in color and/or sheen, a property where dyes in ink crystallize on a page instead of absorbing into the paper, which leads to a different color being seen due to thin film interference, on less absorbent paper. In the 1870s Duncan MacKinnon, a Canadian living in New York City, and Alonzo T. Cross of Providence, Rhode Island, created stylographic pens with a hollow, tubular nib and a wire acting as a valve. By 1915, most pens had switched to self-filling soft and flexible rubber sacs -- to refill these pens, the reservoirs were squeezed flat by an internal plate, then the pen's nib was inserted into a bottle of ink and the pressure on the internal plate was released so the ink sac would fill up, drawing in a fresh supply of ink.

For some the simplicity of the mechanism, coupled with the large volume of ink it can encapsulate, compensates for the inconvenience of ink transfer. A second component, a C-shaped hard rubber ring, is located between the crescent and the barrel. The Sheaffer "Snorkel" system filled the ink sac through a retractable tube above and behind the pen point. [89] There is a clear resurgence in the appeal and culture of the fountain pen, whether for purposes of collection, enjoyment or as a "lifestyle item". This system had been implemented only in their "Level" line, which was discontinued in 2006.[70].

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